Some body repair processes, especially in the heart, occur when a person sleeps. However, the improvement process is determined by the quality of sleep which is characterized by adequate sleep. Not too short or too long. Both sleep deprivation and sleep for too long have their own way of impacting heart health.
How can sleep patterns affect heart health?
Either sleeping too little or too long is suspected to be a risk factor for heart disease. It is also a common thing, where about 44% of sufferers of coronary heart disease are also known to have sleep disorders. The researchers believe that irregular sleep affects the health of the heart in two ways, namely:
- Direct effects on physical health - through the effects of energy deficiency, metabolic disorders, increased appetite, cortisol stress hormone secretion and the inflammatory process of vessels due to increased blood pressure and heart rate.
- Indirect effects through behavior - sleep patterns trigger unhealthy lifestyles caused by mood disorders, fatigue and laziness to move and cognitive disorders such as decreased ability to manage stress as well as negative effects on decision making to adopt a healthy lifestyle.
Experiencing changes in sleep patterns over time, such as when caring for children or family members or experiencing insomnia due to stress, is normal and is a sleep disorder that can be easily overcome. However, chronic disruption of sleep patterns that last for long periods in a row can have a serious impact on heart health.
Risk factors for heart disease that occur due to lack of sleep
Some of the causes of the emergence of heart disease can occur when a person experiences sleep disturbance patterns, including:
Obesity is known as a trigger for damage to the heart and blood vessels because it can significantly increase blood pressure and cholesterol. Weight gain due to lack of sleep is a form of disruption of metabolic function.
In this case, obesity can be triggered by two things namely the process of burning fat and hormones that affect appetite. When lack of sleep, the body does not produce energy from food storage or fat optimally. In addition, lack of sleep also causes us to be less physically active and use energy from food storage.
Lack of sleep also tends to make us more hungry because the process of secretion of the feeling of satiety hormone that plays a role in holding back hunger that is leptin tends to be less when lacking sleep.
2. Hyperglycemia and the risk of diabetes
As a metabolic syndrome, diabetes has a disease feature that can damage the function of blood vessels, namely increased blood sugar levels or hyperglycemia. This can occur because lack of time affects the body's function in performing glucose metabolism and increasing blood sugar levels. As a result hyperglycemia can accelerate the accumulation of fat in blood vessels which results in the emergence of atherosclerosis which is an early sign of coronary heart disease.
3. Increased cholesterol
Cholesterol is an important nutrient obtained from food, but requires an optimal metabolic process, so there is no buildup in the bloodstream. When someone lacks sleep, their body has difficulty metabolizing the type of bad cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein (LDL). As a result, if it occurs for a long time, cholesterol levels in the blood will increase and can trigger damage in blood vessels and the heart.
4. High blood pressure
Rising blood pressure and heart rate are the effects of sleep deprivation that occurs most quickly. Some studies have shown a lack of sleep at night will increase blood pressure right the next day. If it occurs continuously, then an increase in blood pressure can become primary hypertension which is a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases.
The impact of prolonged sleep on heart health
The average adequacy of quality sleep time generally only takes 7 to 9 hours per day. Excessive sleep time that occurs continuously can have an impact on overall body health and its effects are not much different from sleep deprivation.
The simplest impact of sleep deprivation is the reduced portion of time for physical activity so that it is easier to experience obesity. Being overweight and lack of sleep can also trigger chronic inflammation in blood vessels due to abnormal cytokine protein expression when a person sleeps too long. Inflammation of blood vessels is a risk factor for stroke heart disease.
Excess sleep time also triggers metabolic problems such as glucose intolerance, because the body does not respond normally to glucose to be absorbed and used as energy material. This will risk triggering hyperglycemia which can cause diabetes and heart disease.